Many ancient cultures profoundly revered the star Sirius, including the Egyptian, Babylonian, and Mayan civilisations. The Islamic traditions retrieve a lot from hermetic mystical teachings of Egypt, and thus astrological connections to the star Sirius. The Quran states,
And that He it is Who is the Lord of sirius; (53:49)
The chapter 53 of Quran itself is a fascinating study in the art of astrology, as I have succinctly explained in the article, "Navigation through the Zodiac, Al-Quran Chapter : 53 (The Star)". The ancients used to call Sirius a Dog Star, because of its brilliant presence in the astrological sign of Cancer and thereby ushering the world into the extreme heat of Summers. The Quran symbolically attributes the Dog title to Sirius in the story of Seven Sleepers of Ephesus in the chapter 18 of Quran. The seven sleepers in the story are a metaphor used for the seven astrological planets, and their companion Dog is analogous to the star Sirius. Nonetheless, as we know today that Sirius is a binary system of stars and visible as the brightest star in the night sky makes me wonder about the foundations for its significance in the ancient mystical teachings.
There can be ways for rationalising the influence of Sirius on human affairs through the understanding of Quantum Mechanics. The phenomena like 'Action at a Distance' due to Quantum Entanglement, and the probable presence of "Parallel Universes" may well point in this direction. Also, the tendency of modern science to catch up with the magic of the ancient mystics may alter our view of historical patterns quite substantially.