How many different cannons did they have during the US Civil War?

KorbenDallas

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Shorpys, ones again, produced an image worth posting. Pretty sure it's lack of my personal education, but I was under impression that there were only 8-10 different cannons available. My perception was primarily based on various movies and photographs. Whatever I did read was not concentrated around the artillery related topics. I only knew about different cannon balls, and muskets to be honest. But rifled bores...

Wikipedia says, that here were two general types of artillery weapons used during the Civil War: smoothbores and rifles. Smoothbores included howitzers and guns.

I got schooled with a single stereograph dated 1875. Apparently there were at least 50. Which means there could be more. And only 7 out of 50 were cannon balls...

Artistic Stereo Gems of Gettysburg Scenery - Implements of Modern Warfare.
Battle took place: 1863

Artistic Stereo Gems of Gettysburg Scenery_1.jpg


Artistic Stereo Gems of Gettysburg Scenery.jpg

Presented weapon system nomenclature
Compiled by Shorpys user Tobacconist
It is difficult to make a positive ID on some of these without being able to get close up and personal with the projectiles. At the moment numbers 19 and 48 have me flummoxed. The other unnamed ones all appear to be various calibers of Read, or Parrott, or Read-Parrott shells. I'll probably get back to those later. For better or worse, here is my attempt on the rest:

1. Tennessee Sabot/Mullane Type 1 shell with copper fuze for 3-inch ordnance rifle (Confederate) - 7 pounds 3 ounces
2. Schenkl shell for 3-inch ordnance rifle - 8 pounds
3. Solid shot for 5.82-inch caliber-inch caliber 24-pounder smoothbore - 24 pounds
4. Spherical shell for 4.62-inch caliber 12-pounder smoothbore - 9 pounds 4 ounces
5. Burton case shot for 3-inch ordnance rifle - 10 pounds 8 ounces
6. Witworth bolt (solid shot) for 2.75-inch caliber 12-pounder Whitworth rifle - 12 pounds 11 ounces
7. Dyer shell for 3-inch ordnance rifle - 10 pounds 8 ounces
8. Solid shot with wooden cup sabot for 3.67-inch caliber 6-pounder smoothbore (Confederate) - 6 pounds 5 ounces
9. Long-pattern shell for 3.67-inch caliber 20-pounder Parrott rifle - 18 pounds 1 ounce
10. Hotchkiss case shot with removable nose piece for 3.8-inch caliber 14-pounder James rifle (zinc fuze plug) - 13 pounds 2 ounces
11. Hotchkiss shell for 3-inch ordnance rifle - 8 pounds 3 ounces
12. Canister round for 2.6-inch caliber 6-pounder Wiard rifle - 5 pounds 9 ounces
13. Read bolt for 3-inch ordnance rifle - 8 pounds 1 ounces
14. Archer bolt for 3-inch rifle (Confederate) - 5 pounds 15 ounces
15. Hotchkiss shell for 3-inch ordnance rifle - 8 pounds 3 ounces
16. Conical (canister) round for 12-pounder smoothbore (missing tin cylinder and showing only 10 of the 24 iron canister balls) - 14 pounds 11 ounces
17. Solid shot for 4.62-inch caliber 12-pounder smoothbore - 12 pounds 5 ounces
18. Hotchkiss percussion shell for 3-inch ordnance rifle - 8 pounds 7 ounces
19.
20.
21.
22. Spherical shell for 4.62-inch caliber 12-pounder smoothbore - 8 pounds 7 ounces (if case-shot then 10-12 pounds)
23. Absterdam bolt for 3-inch rifle - 9 pounds 5 ounces
24.
25.
26. Spherical shell missing Bormann fuze, with wooden cup sabot for 3.67-inch caliber 6-pounder smoothbore (Confederate) - 4 pounds 15 ounces
27.
28. Read shell for 3-inch ordnance rifle - 8 pounds
29. Hotchkiss case shot for 3.8-inch caliber 14-pounder James rifle (brass fuze plug) - 14 pounds 4 ounces
30. Hotchkiss shell for 3.67-inch caliber rifled 6-pounder (lead sabot intact) - 12 pounds
31. Solid shot with wooden cup sabot for 4.62-inch caliber 12-pounder smoothbore - 12 pounds 5 ounces
32. Archer bolt (solid shot) for 3-inch rifle (Confederate) - 5 pounds 12 ounces
33. Schenkl shell for 3-inch ordnance rifle - 8 pounds
34. Read bolt for 3-inch Confederate rifle - 8 pounds 1 ounce
35.
36. Whitworth Pattern I shell for 6-pounder Whitworth rifle - 5 pounds 14 ounces
37. Pointed nose Dyer case shot for 3-inch ordnance rifle - 10 pounds
38. James Pattern II shell for 3.8-inch caliber 14-pounder James rifle (missing sabot) - 12 pounds
39.
40. Schenkl shell for 3.67-inch caliber 20-pounder Parrott rifle - 15 pounds 6 ounces
41.
42. Schenkl shell for 3.67-inch caliber 20-pounder Parrott rifle - 15 pounds 6 ounces
43.
44. Hotchkiss shell for 3.8-inch caliber 14-pounder James rifle - 14 pounds 4 ounces
45. Schenkl shell for 3.67-inch caliber rifled 6-pounder smoothbore - 10 pounds 7 ounces
46. Hotchkiss canister round for 3-inch ordnance rifle - 7 pounds 1 ounce
47.
48.
49.
50. Bormann fuzed spherical shell for 5.82-inch caliber 24-pounder smoothbore - 20 pounds 3 ounces
KD: a simple question I have - where is any sort of developmental evidence for all the weapon systems used to fire off the rounds presented in the picture?
 

ISeenItFirst

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To play devil's advocate here, there are maybe 8 or 9 calibers listed. Give a bunch of guys a 3 inch gun, and set some other people shooting at them, with some days/weeks between, and they'll find all kinds of things to stuff it with. Otherwise the only difference is the hole size.
 
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KorbenDallas

KorbenDallas

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Agreed, but melting iron on your lap has to be somewhat hard. I would imagine factories were producing those. Just like they tell us they were producing those Ironclads.

Besides, those guys were not in some unique combat situations others did not find themselves in prior.

Anything is possible, but we have one too many things appearing out of nowhere in 1860s.
 

ISeenItFirst

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Iron would be tough, but lead is doable. A factory for cannonballs could be a guy, a fire, and a mold. None of these would want to be iron, cannons wouldn't last.
 

humanoidlord

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i wonder if any of those could have some sort of *ahem* special function just like those swords....
 

BStankman

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What the hell?
Is the civil war even real?

Are you telling me they had exploding ordinance and no one considered helmets to protect them from shrapnel?

Because it seems to me both helmets and the stated reason for this war - imported people - were actually already in the Americas long before this period of history.

olmec.jpg
 
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KorbenDallas

KorbenDallas

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It’s almost like the 19th century witnessed an unprecedented injection of people who received a totally different level of education. But that does not solve the issue of a highly qualified work force.

And I totally agree on the native existence of the allegedly imported people you are talking about.
 

PrincepAugus

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Lol, I guess I know history too much. When you mentioned Civil War spectators, I immediately think of the First Battle of Bull Run. xD
 

BrokenAgate

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All of those, except for the spherical ones, are a surprise to me. What the hell is #6? Looks like it's been...rifled? Is that the right term for that machine-spiral shape to make it fly straighter?


Would seem fun! Until you get shot. xD
Yeah, it's always fun until someone gets an eye shot out.
 

Paracelsus

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The Civil War is my least favorite war to research, but, from what I remember, the most ubiquitous piece of field artillery is the 3 pounder. This a wheeled gun that can be fairly rapidly moved and setup, it fires any 3 pound projectile you can ram down the muzzle. It has an inner barrel wrapped with iron reinforcing bands and finally a third layer of softer iron cast around that.

A three pounder is like a Brown Bess, or a Springfield Armory musket (although, they weren't both the same caliber). Both sides fielded them, and most of the world made them. Rheinmettal, being one of the worlds' largest producers of heavy weapons definitely made them. Rheinmettal is still one of the largest to this day too, they were recently awarded the contract for the main gun on the Leopard IV.
 
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