Carta Marina Olaus Magnus 1539


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Fascinating map, really fascinating.
Olaus Magnus - Bell Library: Maps and Mapmakers

Top left. Giants in Greenland for example?

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The Key for the map and the link to its source. Copied over from this thread 1530s Iceland: Reykjahlíð vs. Saxa and Scalholdin. Vanished cities?
A search for abbey of helgafiel brings up this pdf: Opera Breve, which contains this.

  • A: indicates the extraordinary mountains on whose summit there is eternal snow, and at whose feet, is a dreadful abyss. There is also everlasting fire, similar to the Sicilian Etna with its horror, and also to Vulcan’s cave, mentioned when talking of punishment of the soul. One of them is commonly called Heclafiel, the other Crucis, the third Helgafiel, or holy mountain. On those mountains there are upright stones, put there in memory of the deeds of the ancestors, and on which are inscribed the feats of the ancient populations. [It also indicates] the Scalholdensis Episcopal Church.
  • B: is put near four springs, distinguished by their opposite nature: one is marvelously warm, one frigid, one suitable to quench human thirst, the fourth deadly. Around those springs the inhabitants extract a great quantity of sulfur, which they sell at a very low price, a thousand pounds for a tenth of a florin.
  • C: is between two marvelous sights, that is between a fire, which not having wick to burn, continuously consumes the water, and a certain abyss, whose depth one cannot perceive by sight, but that can be perceived with difficulty by dropping a rope from the edge, where are painted scenes of dead people. Because it happens often that the men drowned in the sea appear to their kin the same day, as if they were alive, and when one asks them to enter the house, sighing they reply that they must go to the mount Hecla.
  • D: is put there to show mostly bears, foxes, hares, and the whitest crows, which here are found everywhere.
  • E: is ice, which emits the most unhappy moan and cry in a human voice: this proves that the souls of men are tortured there.
  • F: shows stones carried by violent exhalations, so that they are sent through the air as if they were flying without anybody throwing them.
  • G: shows such abundance of fish that is put for sale in great mounds, because the inhabitants are almost all fish eaters, since they sow little wheat, and because of this, they reap little. I do not doubt that if they sowed more, they would have more bread, which now they buy brought in from elsewhere. I do believe that they are not so interested in agriculture because of the immense quantity of fish, which they trade for other things.
  • H: contains a very high mountain, considered holy, and the Abbey of Helgafiel, whose great entrance is made of butter, abundant everywhere and distributed in the land.
  • I: shows the Holensis cathedral, and here the pasture is so rich that if the oxen were not taken from the meadows, they would burst because of fatness.
  • K: [shows] great whales similar to mountains, [which] overthrow ships: they are not frightened or slowed by the din and noise of trumpets or by round, empty vessels thrown in the water.
  • L: Inexperienced sailors are at times in danger, as they often cast anchor on some part of the whale’s body, as if they had found an island.
  • M: shows the fights of merchants to obtain the best anchorage, because the lords of these lands do not usually control what happens on high seas.
  • N: has the ensign of the kingdom of Norway, and of Iceland, which belongs to the same kingdom. Besides this, [the letter shows] a knight next to the Norwegian ensign, thrown on the ground by the forces of wind.
  • O: shows here great churches, and houses built with the bones of fish and of sea whales. There are also caves, which are used by the inhabitants against the cold, as Africans hide in similar places against the heat of the sun. And armed knights are shown fighting the cruelest wars against each other, often for unimportant reasons. The citharist attracting birds and fish with the sound [of his instrument], proves also that in the extreme frontiers of this land, music is appreciated, and sometimes is used in fishing and bird catching.
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Blimey on this one Section D Olaus Magnus 1539 Map of Scandinavia - Bell Library: Maps and Mapmakers
we get to see a killer whale (orcha) swimming alongside a cetacean (balena) and her young just of the island of Tile west of the faroe islands. It doesn't appear that the engraver nor the mapmaker had ever seen these creatures in the flesh.

Interesting short article on this Magnus chap Olaus Magnus and the Epistemologies of the Renaissance | MPIWG

In 1539, the Catholic Swedish priest Olaus Magnus published a large map of Scandinavia, the Baltic region, and the North Sea. His Carta Marina was published in Venice, where Olaus spent an important part of his more than 30 years in exile: He had come as an envoy to the Pope, but was eventually stranded, unable to return to a Sweden that had become Lutheran during his absence. The map was unprecedented in its geographical exactitude and its wealth of information on history, politics, anthropology, and natural history. It also presented an image of Northern Europe in religious turmoil: the rich imagery of the map was a set of statements on and revelations of the battle between Lutheranism and Catholicism. The North could be interpreted as an analogy to the strife within Western Christendom.
Olaus also wanted to provide the map with a substantial accompanying text. As it turned out, this became A History of the Northern Peoples, a huge work in 22 books, published only in 1555. At this time, the religious division of Europe was a fait accompli, and the epistemological foundation of the map was no longer valid. Consequently, the book had to renegotiate the structuring principles of the knowledge of the North. The object of this research project was to study the dynamic relationship between the map and the text as an example of the shifting epistemologies of the Renaissance and as an event in the history of the factual. The material also shows how the elements of nature travel between different epistemological and religio-political settings.
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And a much longer one. Unknown Europe: The mapping of the Northern countries by Olaus Magn...
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Olaus Magnus - History of the Northern Peoples - Introduction

A selection of images and descriptions from the book ”History of the Nordic Peoples” – original Latin title Historia de gentibus septentrionalibus

More from a most unusual source Olaus Magnus - History of the Northern Peoples - Introduction
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Olaus Magnus prepared his pictures during a long period of time. The greatest part of them was based on his own observations, and many of them were even drawn by himself. Some pictures can be traced to famous painters like Hans Holbein the younger, and to well-known works like Orlando Furioso, Dyalogus creaturarum and Hortus sanitatis. (Foote, 1996, xliii; Granlund, 1951, 585, 595). Unknown Europe: The mapping of the Northern countries by Olaus Magn...
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What to make of this?
Unknown Europe: The mapping of the Northern countries by Olaus Magn...

One of the open questions concerning the Carta marina is that unfortunately it has not been possible to explain how a large map, and even all its nine separate leaves, could have disappeared in the 1570s so totally that it was not until in 1886 when the first example was found. It was rolled-up among the Scandinavian maps at the then Hof- und Staatbibliothek in Munich. It is also a wonder how more than 30 years could pass after 1962 – the year of the discovery of the Uppsala University Library example – before it was discovered that there is more than only one difference (Richter 1967,38; Sallander 1962, 132) between the two copies (figure 12a).
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Active volcano, in far north east of Scotland in the 1500's?
Section G Olaus Magnus 1539 Map of Scandinavia - Bell Library: Maps and Mapmakers

According to the mainstream the volcano's on the island of Britain were last active 55,000,000 years ago.
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Allegedly written by a 'documentally' speaking mysterious 18th century Swede he joins a small but growing band of Swedes and Scandanavians who appear to be central to the rewriting of history. Olaus Magnus is another with his 'famous map' which again allegedly disappeared from circulation for three hundred years yet set in stone the 'northern scene' as it was in his day, whenever, if ever it was really.

The author of that book is said to be Jodocus Krull living along time after Olaus Magnus but continuing the 'meme' of framing the passed as successfully as his countryman.
The bloke whose work he is said to have translated into English is Samuel von Pufendorf who is claimed to be a German born Samuel Pufendorf who was the 'enobled' by another Swede one Charles XI of Sweden just before he died.

Tyge Brahe and the Bishop of Holar along with Anagrimus Jonas are norwegian/icelandic in origin and they too were framing narratives to fit.
This crew will I feel get bigger as they are either completely fictional or were real living people working to the re-writing that seems to me to be a constant effort that has been going from long before scaligers birth.
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Another Swede!
John Ericsson, who had been born in Sweden in 1803, was known as a highly innovative inventor, though his designs were often met with skepticism. Inventor of The Monitor Images of USS Monitor, Civil War Ironclad
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