1672-1822: Artificial Ancient Granite and Marble

KorbenDallas

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I'm actually pretty excited about this little discovery. I think it could explain how people in the past moved and shaped objects like these:
I also think that this could explain how our "antique" statues made out of "solid marble" were really made. It could also explain why 99% of all our "ancient" statues, busts, etc, were "discovered" in the 18th and 19th centuries.

Artificial Stone
I did not go beyond the official Wikipedia Article pertaining to the narrative compliant history of the artificial stone production. Why would I? Wiki is the tool to give us the official version, and as such, the information provided has to be properly reflecting TPTB position on the issue.
  • History:
    • One of the earliest artificial stones was the Coade stone (SH Article), a ceramic created by Eleanor Coade (1733–1821), and produced from 1769 to 1833.
      • not an artificial granite
    • Later, in 1844, Frederick Ransome created a Patent Siliceous Stone, which comprised sand and powdered flint in an alkaline solution. By heating it in an enclosed high temperature steam boiler the siliceous particles were bound together and could be moulded or worked into filtering slabs, vases, tombstones, decorative architectural work, emery wheels and grindstones.
      • Developed around 1844
      • not an artificial granite
    • This was followed by Victoria stone, which comprises finely-crushed Mountsorrel granite solid surface and Portland cement, carefully mixed by machinery in the proportions of three to one and cast in moulds of the required shape. When the blocks are set hard the moulds are loosened and the blocks placed in a solution of silicate of soda for about two weeks for the purpose of indurating and hardening them. Many manufacturers turn out a material that is practically non-porous and is able effectually to resist the corroding influence of sea air or the impure atmosphere of large towns.
    • Most later types of artificial stone have consisted of fine cement concrete placed to set in wooden or iron moulds. It could be made more cheaply and more uniform than natural stone, and was widely used. In engineering projects, it had the advantage that transporting the bulk materials and casting them near the place of use was cheaper than transporting very large pieces of stone.
      • not an artificial granite
  • Engineered stone
    • Engineered stones are the latest development of artificial stones, it was invented in the early 1980s and have since been continuously developed by the Italian company Breton S.P.A.'s late founder Marcello Toncelli and marketed as Bretonstone.
    • Engineered stones are a mix of marble powder, resin, and pigment cast using vacuum oscillation to form blocks. Slabs are then produced by cutting, grinding, and polishing. Some factories have developed a special, low-viscosity, high-strength polyester resin to improve hardness, strength, and gloss and to reduce water absorption.
    • There are two major varieties of engineered stones based on the main composition of its aggregates (stone powders), marbles and quartz. The process is more or less similar except in certain details, however the two product have different commercial applications.
    • Engineered marbles are most commonly used as flooring for large commercial projects. Engineered quartz is widely used in the developed world for counter tops, window sills, and floor and wall coverings.
    • The vast majority of engineered stone companies are located in Greater China, India, and its birthplace in Italy.
KD: Essentially, the narrative tells us that our artificial granite:
  • was not developed until 1980's
  • uses resin
  • has marble powder mix (and I assume granite, or whatever other powder as well)
  • was given a cool name of "engineered stone"
1839
Artificial Granite and Marble
artifical_granite_0.jpg

artifical_granite_12.jpg

Source + Extra Source
Above we have an example of the production specifications as recorded in 1839. I do not know who this Mr. D'Harcourt was, or where he received this education. This information is relevant but not for this little article. We are after the date here.

1822
I have a strong belief that our Mr. D'Harcourt did not invent the method he patented in 1839. The reason for it is this 1822 publication titled:
The above 1822 pub specifically talks about multiple issues related to the Artificial Granite. And while you can follow the link on your own I wanted to point out one specific issue with artificial granite as described in the above pub.

artifical_granite_13.jpg


artifical_granite_5.jpg


Desquamation
I was not smart enough to know what this "desquamation" was (I hope I was not the only one), so I turned to Google:
  • Desquamation, commonly called skin peeling, is the shedding of the outermost membrane or layer of a tissue, such as the skin.
Desquamation of Pantheon
113–125 AD (current building)
Rome_Pantheon_front.jpg

The Pantheon is a former Roman temple, now a church, in Rome, Italy, on the site of an earlier temple commissioned by Marcus Agrippa during the reign of Augustus (27 BC – 14 AD). It was completed by the emperor Hadrian and probably dedicated about 126 AD. Its date of construction is uncertain, because Hadrian chose not to inscribe the new temple but rather to retain the inscription of Agrippa's older temple, which had burned down.
KD: Well, the narrative compilers, including every single historian who ever repeated the above monolithic non-sense are full of shit
  • Excuse my French please, but this is just straight up ridiculous, for here is our desquamation on the Pantheon columns.​
pantheon-column_1.jpg


Rome_Pantheon_columns_1.jpg


Rome_Pantheon_pealing_8.JPG


Rome_Pantheon_pealing_10.JPG


Rome_Pantheon_pealing_9.JPG


Desquamation of Palmyra
Palmyra is an ancient Semitic city in present-day Syria. Archaeological finds date back to the Neolithic period, and documents first mention the city in the early second millennium BC. Palmyra changed hands on a number of occasions between different empires before becoming a subject of the Roman Empire in the first century AD.
Peristyl House, Palmyra
Peristyl_House_Palmyra_Syria.jpg


The inscription mentioning king Epiphanes (LOL)
Royal_inscription_Palmyra.jpg


Some coumn in Palmyra
Palmyra_column.jpg


19th century Palmyra
palmyra_14.jpg


Baalbek
The Temple of Bacchus
Temple_of_Bacchus.jpg

Baalbek - Wikipedia

1672
Artificial Marbles
I did not find the entire book from 1672. You can give it a try using this link here: 1672 Book

Some of the above types of artificial marbles are actually pretty old. It's important to understand the difference between "their" stacco, and our "modern" one.
  • Ancient Stacco uses:
    • Stucco has also been used as a sculptural and artistic material. Stucco relief was used in the architectural decoration schemes of many ancient cultures. Examples of Egyptian, Minoan, and Etruscan stucco reliefs remain extant. In the art of Mesopotamia and ancient Persian art there was a widespread tradition of figurative and ornamental internal stucco reliefs, which continued into Islamic art, for example in Abbasid Samarra, now using geometrical and plant-based ornament. As the arabesque reached its full maturity, carved stucco remained a very common medium for decoration and calligraphic inscriptions. Indian architecture used stucco as a material for sculpture in an architectural context. It is rare in the countryside.
    • In Roman art of the late Republic and early Empire, stucco was used extensively for the decoration of vaults. Though marble was the preferred sculptural medium in most regards, stucco was better for use in vaults because it was lighter and better suited to adapt to the curvature of the ceiling. Baroque and Rococo architecture makes heavy use of stucco. Examples can be found in churches and palaces, where stucco is mostly used to provide a smooth, decorative transition from walls to ceiling, decorating and giving measure to ceiling surfaces. Stucco is an integral part of the art of belcomposto, the Baroque concept that integrates the three classic arts, architecture, sculpture, and painting.
  • Modern Stacco - Modern stucco is used as an exterior cement plaster wall covering. It is usually a mix of sand, Portland cement, lime and water, but may also consist of a proprietary mix of additives including fibers and synthetic acrylics that add strength and flexibility. Modern synthetic stucco can be applied as one base layer and a finish layer, which is thinner and faster to apply, compared to the traditional application of three-coat stucco.
Artificial Marble in General
1750_marble.jpg

1853 Mining Magazine
I am not going to dig in these artificial marbles. You can help yourself out using this link here - plenty of books to look at. Here is just a few:
Below you can see a small cutout, which I think is pretty telling. As you can see, having artificial marble columns cast using molds was nothing special fort the "common people" living in 1736. As a matter of fact they were surprised to see columns made with real marble.

Synthethic Opal - Opals of all varieties have been synthesized experimentally and commercially. The discovery of the ordered sphere structure of precious opal led to its synthesis by Pierre Gilson in 1974.
Synthetic Sapphire - In 1902, the French chemist Auguste Verneuil developed a process for producing synthetic sapphire crystals.
Synthetic Amethyst - Synthetic (laboratory-grown) amethyst is produced by a synthesis method called hydrothermal growth, which grows the crystals inside a high-pressure autoclave. Synthetic amethyst is made to imitate the best quality amethyst. Its chemical and physical properties are the same to that of natural amethyst and it can not be differentiated with absolute certainty without advanced gemmological testing (which is often cost-prohibitive).
kd_separator.jpg

KD: Sounds like there is a whole lot we do not know about our not so distant past. In this post of the Pantheon thread published by @anotherlayer, I noted that granite was not supposed to be pealing off like this. Well, apparently it is, when our granite is not natural. Now, with "desquamation" we have some sort of a proof that these columns were indeed made using artificial granite.

Really, why would you spend time to quarry some 800 ton slab of granite, transport it to a city, and then spend time shaping, and lifting it. Apparently our so-called ancient forefathers were not as dumb, as our pseudo historians want us to think. They simply produced enough of the elusive artificial granite and avoided the below non-sense.

Also, with most of our "ancient" statues and busts discovered in the 19th century... are we still supposed to believe that for 2,000 years they were waiting to get discovered?
  • Filippo Baldinucci (1624-1697) said the following, "Bernini liked to boast that in his hands marble could become as impressionable as waxand as soft as dough." Bernini's marble does indeed seem to mutate into other substances: fibrous rope; brilliant steel; locks of hair.
  • Bernini’s son Domenico, surely recording his father’s own analogies, also singled out the greatest prize of the artist’s chisel as his victory over the hardness of marble, rendering it “pliable as wax…. obedient to the human hand as if made of dough - pasta.”
  • Faux marble, Alexander the Great, Dhul-Qarnayn, Ivan the Terrible and our Lost History
Who is this guy anyways?
Discovered in 1820
Retrato_de_Julio_César.jpg

Julius Caesar. Really?
 

Obertryn

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Curiously enough, Eleanor Coade was known for manufacturing statues in the neoclassical style. Hmm. Statues, busts...what else?
 

Timeshifter

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I'm actually pretty excited about this little discovery. I think it could explain how people in the past moved and shaped objects like these:
I also think that this could explain how our "antique" statues made out of "solid marble" were really made. It could also explain why 99% of all our "ancient" statues, busts, etc, were "discovered" in the 18th and 19th centuries.

Artificial Stone
I did not go beyond the official Wikipedia Article pertaining to the narrative compliant history of the artificial stone production. Why would I? Wiki is the tool to give us the official version, and as such, the information provided has to be properly reflecting TPTB position on the issue.
  • History:
    • One of the earliest artificial stones was the Coade stone (SH Article), a ceramic created by Eleanor Coade (1733–1821), and produced from 1769 to 1833.
      • not an artificial granite
    • Later, in 1844, Frederick Ransome created a Patent Siliceous Stone, which comprised sand and powdered flint in an alkaline solution. By heating it in an enclosed high temperature steam boiler the siliceous particles were bound together and could be moulded or worked into filtering slabs, vases, tombstones, decorative architectural work, emery wheels and grindstones.
      • Developed around 1844
      • not an artificial granite
    • This was followed by Victoria stone, which comprises finely-crushed Mountsorrel granite solid surface and Portland cement, carefully mixed by machinery in the proportions of three to one and cast in moulds of the required shape. When the blocks are set hard the moulds are loosened and the blocks placed in a solution of silicate of soda for about two weeks for the purpose of indurating and hardening them. Many manufacturers turn out a material that is practically non-porous and is able effectually to resist the corroding influence of sea air or the impure atmosphere of large towns.
    • Most later types of artificial stone have consisted of fine cement concrete placed to set in wooden or iron moulds. It could be made more cheaply and more uniform than natural stone, and was widely used. In engineering projects, it had the advantage that transporting the bulk materials and casting them near the place of use was cheaper than transporting very large pieces of stone.
      • not an artificial granite
  • Engineered stone
    • Engineered stones are the latest development of artificial stones, it was invented in the early 1980s and have since been continuously developed by the Italian company Breton S.P.A.'s late founder Marcello Toncelli and marketed as Bretonstone.
    • Engineered stones are a mix of marble powder, resin, and pigment cast using vacuum oscillation to form blocks. Slabs are then produced by cutting, grinding, and polishing. Some factories have developed a special, low-viscosity, high-strength polyester resin to improve hardness, strength, and gloss and to reduce water absorption.
    • There are two major varieties of engineered stones based on the main composition of its aggregates (stone powders), marbles and quartz. The process is more or less similar except in certain details, however the two product have different commercial applications.
    • Engineered marbles are most commonly used as flooring for large commercial projects. Engineered quartz is widely used in the developed world for counter tops, window sills, and floor and wall coverings.
    • The vast majority of engineered stone companies are located in Greater China, India, and its birthplace in Italy.
KD: Essentially, the narrative tells us that our artificial granite:
  • was not developed until 1980's
  • uses resin
  • has marble powder mix (and I assume granite, or whatever other powder as well)
  • was given a cool name of "engineered stone"
1839
Artificial Granite and Marble
View attachment 25521
View attachment 25522
Source + Extra Source
Above we have an example of the production specifications as recorded in 1839. I do not know who this Mr. D'Harcourt was, or where he received this education. This information is relevant but not for this little article. We are after the date here.

1822
I have a strong belief that our Mr. D'Harcourt did not invent the method he patented in 1839. The reason for it is this 1822 publication titled:
The above 1822 pub specifically talks about multiple issues related to the Artificial Granite. And while you can follow the link on your own I wanted to point out one specific issue with artificial granite as described in the above pub.

I was not smart enough to know what this "desquamation" was (I hope I was not the only one), so I turned to Google:
  • Desquamation, commonly called skin peeling, is the shedding of the outermost membrane or layer of a tissue, such as the skin.
Desquamation of Pantheon
113–125 AD (current building)
View attachment 25525
The Pantheon is a former Roman temple, now a church, in Rome, Italy, on the site of an earlier temple commissioned by Marcus Agrippa during the reign of Augustus (27 BC – 14 AD). It was completed by the emperor Hadrian and probably dedicated about 126 AD. Its date of construction is uncertain, because Hadrian chose not to inscribe the new temple but rather to retain the inscription of Agrippa's older temple, which had burned down.
KD: Well, the narrative compilers, including every single historian who ever repeated the above monolithic non-sense are full of shit
  • Excuse my French please, but this is just straight up ridiculous, for here is our desquamation on the Pantheon columns.​
Palmyra is an ancient Semitic city in present-day Syria. Archaeological finds date back to the Neolithic period, and documents first mention the city in the early second millennium BC. Palmyra changed hands on a number of occasions between different empires before becoming a subject of the Roman Empire in the first century AD.
Peristyl House, Palmyra
View attachment 25531

The inscription mentioning king Epiphanes (LOL)
View attachment 25532


Some coumn in Palmyra
View attachment 25534

19th century Palmyra
View attachment 25536

Baalbek
The Temple of Bacchus
View attachment 25537
Baalbek - Wikipedia

1672
Artificial Marbles
I did not find the entire book from 1672. You can give it a try using this link here: 1672 Book

Some of the above types of artificial marbles are actually pretty old. It's important to understand the difference between "their" stacco, and our "modern" one.
  • Ancient Stacco uses:
    • Stucco has also been used as a sculptural and artistic material. Stucco relief was used in the architectural decoration schemes of many ancient cultures. Examples of Egyptian, Minoan, and Etruscan stucco reliefs remain extant. In the art of Mesopotamia and ancient Persian art there was a widespread tradition of figurative and ornamental internal stucco reliefs, which continued into Islamic art, for example in Abbasid Samarra, now using geometrical and plant-based ornament. As the arabesque reached its full maturity, carved stucco remained a very common medium for decoration and calligraphic inscriptions. Indian architecture used stucco as a material for sculpture in an architectural context. It is rare in the countryside.
    • In Roman art of the late Republic and early Empire, stucco was used extensively for the decoration of vaults. Though marble was the preferred sculptural medium in most regards, stucco was better for use in vaults because it was lighter and better suited to adapt to the curvature of the ceiling. Baroque and Rococo architecture makes heavy use of stucco. Examples can be found in churches and palaces, where stucco is mostly used to provide a smooth, decorative transition from walls to ceiling, decorating and giving measure to ceiling surfaces. Stucco is an integral part of the art of belcomposto, the Baroque concept that integrates the three classic arts, architecture, sculpture, and painting.
  • Modern Stacco - Modern stucco is used as an exterior cement plaster wall covering. It is usually a mix of sand, Portland cement, lime and water, but may also consist of a proprietary mix of additives including fibers and synthetic acrylics that add strength and flexibility. Modern synthetic stucco can be applied as one base layer and a finish layer, which is thinner and faster to apply, compared to the traditional application of three-coat stucco.
Artificial Marble in General
View attachment 25546
1853 Mining Magazine
I am not going to dig in these artificial marbles. You can help yourself out using this link here - plenty of books to look at. Here is just a few:
Below you can see a small cutout, which I think is pretty telling. As you can see, having artificial marble columns cast using molds was nothing special fort the "common people" living in 1736. As a matter of fact they were surprised to see columns made with real marble.

Synthethic Opal - Opals of all varieties have been synthesized experimentally and commercially. The discovery of the ordered sphere structure of precious opal led to its synthesis by Pierre Gilson in 1974.
Synthetic Sapphire - In 1902, the French chemist Auguste Verneuil developed a process for producing synthetic sapphire crystals.
Synthetic Amethyst - Synthetic (laboratory-grown) amethyst is produced by a synthesis method called hydrothermal growth, which grows the crystals inside a high-pressure autoclave. Synthetic amethyst is made to imitate the best quality amethyst. Its chemical and physical properties are the same to that of natural amethyst and it can not be differentiated with absolute certainty without advanced gemmological testing (which is often cost-prohibitive).
KD: Sounds like there is a whole lot we do not know about our not so distant past. In this post of the Pantheon thread published by @anotherlayer, I noted that granite was not supposed to be pealing off like this. Well, apparently it is, when our granite is not natural. Now, with "desquamation" we have some sort of a proof that these columns were indeed made using artificial granite.

Really, why would you spend time to quarry some 800 ton slab of granite, transport it to a city, and then spend time shaping, and lifting it. Apparently our so-called ancient forefathers were not as dumb, as our pseudo historians want us to think. They simply produced enough of the elusive artificial granite and avoided the below non-sense.

Also, with most of our "ancient" statues and busts discovered in the 19th century... are we still supposed to believe that for 2,000 years they were waiting to get discovered?
  • Filippo Baldinucci (1624-1697) said the following, "Bernini liked to boast that in his hands marble could become as impressionable as waxand as soft as dough." Bernini's marble does indeed seem to mutate into other substances: fibrous rope; brilliant steel; locks of hair.
  • Bernini’s son Domenico, surely recording his father’s own analogies, also singled out the greatest prize of the artist’s chisel as his victory over the hardness of marble, rendering it “pliable as wax…. obedient to the human hand as if made of dough - pasta.”
  • Faux marble, Alexander the Great, Dhul-Qarnayn, Ivan the Terrible and our Lost History
Who is this guy anyways?
Discovered in 1820
View attachment 25549
Julius Caesar. Really?
Excellent work @KorbenDallas I believe you have hit a big nail squarely on the head here 👍
 

Ice Nine

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Holy Crap, I have been thinking somebody along the line slapped a layer of whatever over existing structures and it has started to peel off. Not so! It's a defect essentially in the product,
 
OP
KorbenDallas

KorbenDallas

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Some interesting things pop up in those scanned books.
diamond_1.jpg

diamond_2.jpg


diamond_3.jpg

I think that in 1814 they knew way more than in 1850 though. 1850 appears to be after the "Event."

Artificial Diamond History:
  • Numerous claims of diamond synthesis were documented between 1879 and 1928; most of those attempts were carefully analyzed but none were confirmed. In the 1940s, systematic research began in the United States, Sweden and the Soviet Union to grow diamonds using CVD and HPHT processes. The first reproducible synthesis was reported around 1955. Those two processes still dominate the production of synthetic diamond. A third method, known as detonation synthesis, entered the diamond market in the late 1990s.

More on Granite
+ Porphyry

to_make_granite.jpg

1822 Geological Cookery

to_make_granite_8.jpg

Fun porphyry stuff:
  • As early as 1850 BC on Crete in Minoan Knossos there were large column bases made of porphyry. All the porphyry columns in Rome, the red porphyry togas on busts of emperors, the porphyry panels in the revetment of the Pantheon, as well as the altars and vases and fountain basins reused in the Renaissance and dispersed as far as Kiev, all came from the one quarry at Mons Porpyritis ("Porphyry Mountain", the Arabic Jabal Abu Dukhan), which seems to have been worked intermittently between 29 and 335 AD. Porphyry was also used for the blocks of the Column of Constantine in Istanbul.
 

SanPhaedrus

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This reminds me of pigments and oil based paints. Oil paint goes through a stage similar to “pliable as wax…. obedient to the human hand as if made of dough - pasta.” But it also hardens if left alone, however.

220px-Natural_ultramarine_pigment.jpg

Lapis Lazuli particularly is interesting. Pulverize rocks, mix with flax oil/wax, basically.

s-l300.jpg

The first oil based paint is attributed to 1420. I guess it took them a while to figure out how to pulverize granite and marble.
 
Last edited:

Beanieboo111

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Still very unclear or what purpose and by which means they have erected gigantic columns in such large number and in many cases high off the ground. Most of the columns we see are close to a ground level but that is only because that most of the building across the globe have been buried in some sediment up to half to 2/3 of their size. The only building that has been fully dug out is Altare De la Patria in Rome. Mussolini’s project.

Altare della Patria - Wikipedia

I also think that if they were pouting a liquified rock into some pre existing form, the marks of the form would be visible. However, no such things observed. Regardless, such big size of columns and buildings in general must have pursued a specific purpose, other than mere aesthetics. There is a group of people online with technical background who came to a conclusion that many of the so called churches and other building of “classical” design are technical devices. Some of these devices are designated to generate electricity, others some sonic properties. The latter are found across Portugal and Italy with their large circular windows all directed toward main volcanoes.

Then there is also this.

Art Beyond Words: Corradini's Veiled Lady ~ Christa Wojciechowski

There are many of these across the globe with far more intricate design. Nets and veils. Even if one can create an artificial stone, to chisle this out without CNC or 3D printer is impossible. IMHO. Much of it is 19th century.
 

jd755

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Some links to 19th century artificial stone.
Artificial Stone: 19th-century Cementitious Sculpture and Rockwork
Pulhamite artificial rock
The Pulham Legacy
And a pdf on how to repair/conserve it.
https://historicengland.org.uk/images-books/publications/durability-guaranteed-pulhamite-rockwork/durabilityguaranteedpulhamite/
Cannot upload the pdf as its too big but the things they made out of it. You will never look at 'a castle' the same way again, or 'ancient rocks' or 'sculpture'. Who needs staff!

Edit to add;
Rocks u like
Keith Wheatley

vertical.JPG
 
Last edited:

SanPhaedrus

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I just had a convergence with some of my 'worm-creature' wonderings in another thread, here.

Going into the idea of 'talmudic worms', I Google suggested this:

shamir worm.JPG


"Solomon's Shamir is a worm or a substance that had the power to cut through or disintegrate stone, iron and diamond. ...The material to be worked, whether stone, wood or metal, was affected by being "shown to the Shamir." Following this line of logic (anything that can be 'shown' something must have eyes to see), early Rabbinical scholars described the Shamir almost as a living being. "

Well, dang.
 

AdrienNash

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I finished this a couple days ago:
India has the most mind-blowing temples in the world. That is due to the volume of extremely detailed figures and patterns in stone, unmatched and unattempted by any other culture on Earth. Many, if not most, are indescribable and stand as mysteries of great stone-carving genius. And yet, what they actually are is genius at avoiding carving in stone.

In the absence of advanced power tools and computer-aided manufacturing, stone presents great limitations, but clay does not. ...
~my mistake...I should have used the word "evidence" instead of "proof". But you know how it goes when you are trying to come up with a catchy title.

"Notice the undercut of the bottom blocks of the window spans. Humans would never design (nor do) such a thing. But Artificial-Intelligence robots would. And did. -prove me wrong. And for those who aren’t keeping up: we will be building such machines within 25 years.
 

0harris0

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I finished this a couple days ago:
India has the most mind-blowing temples in the world. That is due to the volume of extremely detailed figures and patterns in stone, unmatched and unattempted by any other culture on Earth. Many, if not most, are indescribable and stand as mysteries of great stone-carving genius. And yet, what they actually are is genius at avoiding carving in stone.

In the absence of advanced power tools and computer-aided manufacturing, stone presents great limitations, but clay does not. ...
~my mistake...I should have used the word "evidence" instead of "proof". But you know how it goes when you are trying to come up with a catchy title.

"Notice the undercut of the bottom blocks of the window spans. Humans would never design (nor do) such a thing. But Artificial-Intelligence robots would. And did. -prove me wrong. And for those who aren’t keeping up: we will be building such machines within 25 years.
thank you for the links! looking forward to reading your work :)
 

Feralimal

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I just bumped into this document:
Pyramids (3) The formula, the invention of stone – Geopolymer Institute
It's about the geopolymer institute in France's efforts to make limestone.

Very interesting, I thought. I ignored the bit about Imhotep using this technique - it could have been him, or, for all we know, it could have been Napoleon! Or anyone in between.

Still very interesting to see the write up of an experiment making stone. Much more simple than you'd think. Or at least than I thought.
 

Starmonkey

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I just bumped into this document:
Pyramids (3) The formula, the invention of stone – Geopolymer Institute
It's about the geopolymer institute in France's efforts to make limestone.

Very interesting, I thought. I ignored the bit about Imhotep using this technique - it could have been him, or, for all we know, it could have been Napoleon! Or anyone in between.

Still very interesting to see the write up of an experiment making stone. Much more simple than you'd think. Or at least than I thought.
The Great Pyramid (not sure about others) is made of a mixture called "coin-in-stone". Has bits of metal mixed in.
 
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