Ancient Rome is a pendant to Modern Rome and catalogs the most famous antique monuments in the city. It was commissioned by the Count de Stainville, later the Duke de Choiseul, who is seen at the center with a guidebook in hand. Panini includes himself behind the chair. The gentlemen are admiring a copy of an ancient fresco. The Pantheon, Colosseum, Trajan's Column, the Farnese Hercules, and the Laocoön can be identified.